The concerns of Holocaust survivors identified as ‘displaced persons’ after World War II stays at the center of “Our Courage. Jews in Europe 1945-1948” at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt. For many of them, the recovery of the home, the family, and even the identity meant a fight against unsurmountable challenges.

Image: The cast of the theater company Katset-Teater at the camp of displaced persons Bergen-Belsen in front of a set with the title “Eine Laus – dein Tod!” (“A Louse – Your Death!”), 1947/48, Private Collection, Frankfurt am Main.

As much as having survived the brutally pursued, inconceivable destruction of existence was the common ground of Jewish immediate post-war experience, the chances for survival and recovery for Jewish people were as diverse as the places where the retracing of their lost identities, lives, and the possibilities for new beginnings took place. From Eastern to Western Europe, from Białystok and Dzierżoniów to East Berlin, Frankfurt, Zeilsheim, Amsterdam, or Bari, the quest for survival took different paths, encountering obstacles often impossible to overcome and unexpected outcomes. Europe, home of Jewish life over the centuries, became an inhospitable place for her Jewish sons and daughters who were now ‘displaced’ in their own places of birth, in the cities, towns, and villages were their families lived for generations and where their ancestors actively shaped the daily life of their Jewish and non-Jewish communities. Decimated, with the schock their own survival and the burden to make the others believe that they were still there and had the right to be there, in spite of everything, the European Jews started anew. The exhibition “Our Courage. Jews in Europe 1945-1948” at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt tells us of the first years of this struggle across seven European places in East and West. 

Image of David Boder, American Psychologist who interviewed twenty Holocaust survivors in 1946 in Europe with the help of the new audio tape technology. Boder was of Jewish origin, born in Lettland in 1886. Displayed at “Our Courage. Jews in Europe 1945-1948” at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt. October 10th 2021.

Being a refugee in the own home, without a family, a place to live, often without the mere birth name, was the counterpart of the uncanny experience of trying to be a citizen in a city brutally amputated from the people that molded its everyday life, as Hans Krieg, quoted in the exhibition, asks himself in 1947:

Where are the people? Am I ever going to see them again? Where are the fruit traders and the florists? Where is the ragman that always came by? Where are the ten thousands that have to remain nameless? Where are the Jews of Amsterdam?”

Abandoned quarters, a neighborhood “without a soul,” in the likewise quoted words of Gerrit Osnowicz from1945, mirror the loss of identity and nationality that individual survivors had suffered and tried to overcome to be able to start with their lives again. The experience of the German Helga Frühauf for instance, is one of the cases in the exhibit that did not succeed in this struggle: after fleeing from Germany in 1943, she returned to Frankfurt in 1950 without being able to get the restitution of her robbed nationality ever again. Helga remained the victim of the expatriation and denaturalization laws of National Socialism for the rest of her life.

Image of the refugee ID issued by The International Refugee Organization for Helga Frühauf (Brussels, May 29th 1951) displayed at “Our Courage. Jews in Europe 1945-1948” at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt. October 10th 2021.

As the display clearly shows us, individual and collective stories of victimization continued after World War II either through the impossible obstructions of bureaucracy in Western Europe — caricatured 1951 in Germany as a hopeless board game that ended up in a jungle of paragraphs by the weekly paper Allgemeine Jüdische Illustrierte — or, in the most extreme form, through new Eastern European pogroms that generated further waves of Jewish mass emigration, like the Kielce-Pogrom in Poland on July 4th 1946, where 42 Jewish people were killed and many others were injured. In face of this situation in Western and Eastern Europe, Holocaust survivors pursued their way to Palestina through Italy, an endeavor initially impeded by Britain and provoked survivor’s protests in symbolically charged places. The Roman Arch of Titus, whose inner surface displays the triumphal procession after the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem and the start of the Jewish exile in 70 a.d., was one of them. At the same time, other survivors hopefully looked for a new start in America, only to be confronted with the strict quotas limiting the immigration of European Jews set by the United States.

Image of the caricature “Mensch, ärgere Dich nicht über die Wiedergutmachung!”, Allgemeine Jüdische Illustrierte, Germany, 1851, Jewish Museum Frankfurt. Displayed at “Our Courage. Jews in Europe 1945-1948” at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt. October 10th 2021.
Caption of the demonstration of Jewish displaced persons at the Arch of Titus, 1947. Ucel Historical Archive, Centro Bibliografico, Rom, and donation boxes of the Jewish National Funds Keren Kayemet Leisrael, 1930-1950, Jewish National Funds, Israel, displayed at “Our Courage. Jews in Europe 1945-1948” at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt. October 10th 2021.

In addition to the historically rich documentary material, photographies and video footage, private and official letters and documents, interviews with witnesses and personal stories through audio recordings, the temporary exhibition “Our Courage. Jews in Europe 1945-1948” at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt awaits its visitors with artistic representations of the memory of the Holocaust produced directly after the war as a way not only to artistically come to terms with the traumatic experience, but also to reconstruct and bring back to life yiddish cultural traditions. Displaced theater plays and graphic art work as testimony of the Shoah by artists like Rudi Stern and Leo Haas are only some of them.

Image of Mordechai, Queen Esther, and Haman as Hitler, dolls from Leni Norden, Joods Historisch Museum Amsterdam, and Hitler and Goebels as begging actors, Purim play in the displaced persons camp Feldafing, 1946-1948. Displayed at “Our Courage. Jews in Europe 1945-1948” at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt. October 10th 2021.

Bearing witness to a story of unimaginable loss that started with extreme suffering and desperation and continued with rejection and uncertainty, the exhibit also tells the story of an unbreakable will to reinvent oneself, individually and collectively, rising from the ashes no matter what.

“Our Courage. Jews in Europe 1945-1948” is being actually displayed from 10 am to 6 pm and remains until January 18th 2022 at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt.

A varied program of movies, readings, interviews, talks, performances, and guided visits in the context of the exhibition will be offered until January 17th 2022 here. For detailed in-depth information, get the exhibition catalogue at deGruyter.

Posted by:Sofia Elena

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